Kidney Stones

Kidney Stones

Kidney Stones

Kidney stones are the hard deposits of minerals that are formed within the body. Four types of kidney stones are – calcium oxalate stones, uric acid stones, struvite stones and cystine stones.
Causes:
• Diet • Excess body weight • Medications • Dehydration • Family history • Polycystic kidney disease
Symptoms:
• Blood in urine • Severe pain on either side of the lower back • Long-lasting stomach ache • Cloudy urine and burning sensation while urinating • Fever and chills • Persistent need or feel to urinate
Diagnosis:
• Blood testing – calcium and uric acid levels • Urine testing • Imaging – CT Scan and KUB x-ray • Analysis of passed stones – if any
Treatment:
For small stones:
• Drinking lots of water • Pain killers • Medications including muscle relaxants that act upon the muscles of bladder facilitating the passing out of stones
For large stones:
• Shock-wave lithotripsy • Ureteroscopy • Percutaneous nephrolithotomy
Prevention:
• Drinking enough quantity of water except for people having kidney diseases • Limiting sodium and animal based protein diet • Eating more fruits and vegetables • Limitation of sugar and syrup based foods • High protein weight loss diets or crash diets are known to contribute in the formation of the stones hence can be eliminated

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